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Digital Colour in Graphic Design
nantly made from mineral ores - azurite (blue), malachite
(green), orpiment and realgar (yellow), cinnabar (red), blue
fruit and white lead. Additional early or pastel-like colors
offered by gouache - a form of watercolor which uses
opaque pigments rather than the usual transparent watercolor
pigments - were also developed by the Egyptians. The
wall paintings of ancient Egypt and the Mycenaean period
in Greece are believed to have been executed in tempera - a
the method of painting in which the pigments were carried in a
blue-purple organic pigment indigo, extracted from the In-
.dig0 plant, as well as Tyrian purple and the green copper oxide,
verdigris. Many years later, the thirteenth century saw
the introduction of lead-tin yellow, madder (red), ultramarine
(blue green) and vermilion (red).design
In contrast to the older water-based media, such as
fresco, tempera and watercolor, oil paints, developed in
Europe in the late Middle Ages, consist of pigments ground
up in an oil which dries on exposure to air. The oil is usually
linseed but may be poppy or walnut. In the late eighteenth
century the Industrial Revolution boosted the palette with
chromes, cadmium and cobalt's, but it was not until the following
the century that paints consisting of prepared mixtures of
pigments and binders became commercially available on a
In parallel with the gradual evolution of the types and
colors of paint available to the artist, inks used for printing
also evolved. Lampblack - a black pigment produced by the
incomplete burning of hydrocarbons - was in use in /4..7
China as early as AD
colour for woodblock printing, with decorative colour '!
being added by quill pen. Early letterpress printing,:,
used inks composed of varnish, linseed oil, and carbon
black. In the eighteenth century the first coloured
inks were developed and in the nineteenth century a
wide variety of pigments were developed for use in the manufacture
of these inks. Manufacture of modern printing inks is
a complicated process often using chemically produced rather
than natural pigments and containing as many as fifteen separate
ingredients, including modifiers or additives and dryers
which control appearance, durability and drying